Ask Well: Is Nail Polish Harmful?
The idea of nail polish 1) as a risky substance 2) gained traction in 2006 when 3) public health advocates began a nationwide protest 4) concerning three compounds — often referred to as “the toxic trio” — in leading nail polish brands.
The trio consisted of a known carcinogen, formaldehyde, used as a hardening agent, and two materials linked to 5) developmental defects: toluene, 6) to evenly suspend color, and the plasticizer dibutyl phthalate, or DBP, to add 7) flexibility and sheen.
Since then, many companies have voluntarily removed these compounds from their products, although, as a 2012 investigation by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control found, some simply changed their labels while continuing to use them. While the European Union has banned the use of DBP in cosmetics, the United States Food and Drug Administration 8) has not taken any comparable regulatory action.
Janet Nudelman, co-founder of the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, an advocacy group, said the concern was that 9) trace amounts of these materials would be absorbed through the skin or nail or that 10) vapors would be inhaled. “No one is saying that occasional application of nail polish will cause 11) long-term health consequences,” she said. But certain groups may be at higher risk.
Researchers have raised direct health concerns for those who work in nail salons, for instance, leading salon operators to organize for better regulation.
Children, too, may be particularly 12) susceptible to phthalates like DBP that pose developmental risks, and some 13) pediatricians now warn against letting young girls, especially 14) those young enough to chew on their fingers, wear polish.
For 15) dedicated polish enthusiasts, Ms. Nudelman recommends doing research to find the safest brands. The Environmental Working Group maintains a searchable cosmetics database at www.ewg.org/skindeep
1) as a risky substance : (해로운) 위험 물질로서< Copyright © The Gachon Herald All rights reserved >
2) gained traction : 관심을 끌다
3) public health advocates : 공중 보건 옹호자(지지자)들
4) concerning three compounds : 세 가지의 화합물에 관해서
5) developmental defects : 발달 장애 (발육상의 결함)
6) to evenly suspend color : 고르게 펴 발라지도록
7) flexibility and sheen : 유연성과 광택(윤)
8) has not taken any comparable regulatory action : 유럽과 같은 규제 조항을 전혀 취하지 않았다
9) trace amounts : very small amount, 미량의
10) vapors would be inhaled : 기화된 것(냄새)이 몸 속으로 흡입될 수 있다
11) long-term health consequences : 장기적으로 건강에 심각한 결과를
12) susceptible to : ~에 취약한 (민감한)
13) pediatricians : 소아과 의사들
14) those young enough to chew on their fingers : 손톱을 뜯을 정도로 어린 여자애들
15 ) dedicated polish enthusiasts : 매니큐어를 너무나 좋아하는 매니아들
By Deborah Blum
Published: January 2, 2014
Source: The New York Times